The lighting of a painting is fundamental. Almost as essential as placing it in a suitable place and height. Because a little or poorly lit painting will determine how the painting looks and what it transmits.
Directional lights will accentuate and locate lighting. Although these types of lights are installed suspended from the ceiling or on the floor, they can also be used with standing supports or placed on the wall. If what you want is to highlight the texture of the painting, the ideal is to place one or two directional lights from below or from above.
In the event that the painting has glass, to avoid reflections and a glass effect, the best thing is indirect lighting, which illuminates the area where the painting is located, but not the painting itself.
If what is intended to be illuminated is a group of paintings, unless each one has a separate illuminated meaning, it is best to illuminate the group with a single center of light. In this way, lighting does not interfere with the sense of the whole.
The rails used to illuminate the paintings must always be the same size as the painting to be illuminated so that there are no dark or dimly lit parts.
Low consumption light bulbs or LEDs are ideal for this type of lighting, because halogen bulbs, being more powerful, can damage the picture.
Also, it is important to take into account the heat that the bulb emits, because it can discolor the painting. For adequate lighting, which does not deteriorate the color of the painting, the light source should be located about 25 cm. away.